Plot Overview / RESUMEN DEL LIBRO:

In the kingdom of Illyria, a nobleman named Orsino lies around listening to music, pining away for the love of Lady Olivia. He cannot have her because she is in mourning for her dead brother and refuses to entertain any proposals of marriage. Meanwhile, off the coast, a storm has caused a terrible shipwreck. A young, aristocratic-born woman named Viola is swept onto the Illyrian shore. Finding herself alone in a strange land, she assumes that her twin brother, Sebastian, has been drowned in the wreck, and tries to figure out what sort of work she can do. A friendly sea captain tells her about Orsino’s courtship of Olivia, and Viola says that she wishes she could go to work in Olivia’s home. But since Lady Olivia refuses to talk with any strangers, Viola decides that she cannot look for work with her. Instead, she decides to disguise herself as a man, taking on the name of Cesario, and goes to work in the household of Duke Orsino.
Viola (disguised as Cesario) quickly becomes a favorite of Orsino, who makes Cesario his page. Viola finds herself falling in love with Orsino—a difficult love to pursue, as Orsino believes her to be a man. But when Orsino sends Cesario to deliver Orsino’s love messages to the disdainful Olivia, Olivia herself falls for the beautiful young Cesario, believing her to be a man. The love triangle is complete: Viola loves Orsino, Orsino loves Olivia, and Olivia loves Cesario—and everyone is miserable.

Meanwhile, we meet the other members of Olivia’s household: her rowdy drunkard of an uncle, Sir Toby; his foolish friend, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, who is trying in his hopeless way to court Olivia; Olivia’s witty and pretty waiting-gentlewoman, Maria; Feste, the clever clown of the house; and Malvolio, the dour, prudish steward of Olivia’s household. When Sir Toby and the others take offense at Malvolio’s constant efforts to spoil their fun, Maria engineers a practical joke to make Malvolio think that Olivia is in love with him. She forges a letter, supposedly from Olivia, addressed to her beloved (whose name is signified by the letters M.O.A.I.), telling him that if he wants to earn her favor, he should dress in yellow stockings and crossed garters, act haughtily, smile constantly, and refuse to explain himself to anyone. Malvolio finds the letter, assumes that it is addressed to him, and, filled with dreams of marrying Olivia and becoming noble himself, happily follows its commands. He behaves so strangely that Olivia comes to think that he is mad.

Meanwhile, Sebastian, who is still alive after all but believes his sister Viola to be dead, arrives in Illyria along with his friend and protector, Antonio. Antonio has cared for Sebastian since the shipwreck and is passionately (and perhaps sexually) attached to the young man—so much so that he follows him to Orsino’s domain, in spite of the fact that he and Orsino are old enemies.

Sir Andrew, observing Olivia’s attraction to Cesario (still Viola in disguise), challenges Cesario to a duel. Sir Toby, who sees the prospective duel as entertaining fun, eggs Sir Andrew on. However, when Sebastian—who looks just like the disguised Viola—appears on the scene, Sir Andrew and Sir Toby end up coming to blows with Sebastian, thinking that he is Cesario. Olivia enters amid the confusion. Encountering Sebastian and thinking that he is Cesario, she asks him to marry her. He is baffled, since he has never seen her before. He sees, however, that she is wealthy and beautiful, and he is therefore more than willing to go along with her. Meanwhile, Antonio has been arrested by Orsino’s officers and now begs Cesario for help, mistaking him for Sebastian. Viola denies knowing Antonio, and Antonio is dragged off, crying out that Sebastian has betrayed him. Suddenly, Viola has newfound hope that her brother may be alive.

Malvolio’s supposed madness has allowed the gleeful Maria, Toby, and the rest to lock Malvolio into a small, dark room for his treatment, and they torment him at will. Feste dresses up as "Sir Topas," a priest, and pretends to examine Malvolio, declaring him definitely insane in spite of his protests. However, Sir Toby begins to think better of the joke, and they allow Malvolio to send a letter to Olivia, in which he asks to be released.

Eventually, Viola (still disguised as Cesario) and Orsino make their way to Olivia’s house, where Olivia welcomes Cesario as her new husband, thinking him to be Sebastian, whom she has just married. Orsino is furious, but then Sebastian himself appears on the scene, and all is revealed. The siblings are joyfully reunited, and Orsino realizes that he loves Viola, now that he knows she is a woman, and asks her to marry him. We discover that Sir Toby and Maria have also been married privately. Finally, someone remembers Malvolio and lets him out of the dark room. The trick is revealed in full, and the embittered Malvolio storms off, leaving the happy couples to their celebration.

Quiz / CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE PLAY / compureba si te has enterado!
Scroll through the page to review your answers. The correct answer is highlighted in green. Your incorrect answers (if any) are highlighted in red. If you'd like to take the test over again, click the reset button at the end of the test.

1. Who is Orsino in love with at the beginning of the play?

(A) Olivia
(B) Viola
(C) Maria
(D) Malvolio

2. Complete the quote: "If music be the food of _____, play on."

(A) Sleep
(B) Sorrow
(C) Love
(D) Joy

3. Where does Twelfth Night take place?

(A) England
(B) Illyria
(C) Ruritania
(D) Denmark

4. Why is Olivia unwilling to receive any visitors?

(A) She is hideously deformed
(B) She is terribly shy
(C) She cannot speak
(D) She is in mourning for her dead brother

5. How does Viola come to be at Orsino’s court?

(A) She is shipwrecked nearby
(B) She is captured and made a slave
(C) She is invited to be a guest of Orsino
(D) She is Orsino’s daughter

6. Why is Sir Andrew Aguecheek staying at Olivia’s home?

(A) He is her uncle
(B) He is trying to court Maria
(C) He is trying to court Olivia
(D) He is Malvolio’s brother

7. How does Viola disguise herself?

(A) She puts on makeup to make herself resemble an old woman
(B) She dresses like a man
(C) She shaves her head and wears a false beard
(D) She does not disguise herself

8. What is Malvolio’s position?

(A) He is Orsino’s fool
(B) He is Viola’s butler
(C) He is Sir Toby’s butler
(D) He is Olivia’s steward

9. What is Sir Toby’s great vice?

(A) He is a drunkard
(B) He is a glutton
(C) He enjoys pornography
(D) He has no vices

10. Who does Orsino send to carry his messages to Olivia?

(A) Malvolio
(B) Feste
(C) Viola, disguised as Cesario
(D) Sebastian

11. Who does Viola fall in love with?

(A) Malvolio
(B) Orsino
(C) Sir Toby
(D) Olivia

12. Who does Olivia fall in love with?

(A) Orsino
(B) Malvolio
(C) Antonio
(D) Viola, in her disguise as Cesario

13. Who is Sebastian?

(A) Viola’s brother
(B) Orsino’s cousin
(C) Olivia’s fool
(D) Malvolio’s son

14. Who forges the letter that Malvolio thinks is from Olivia?

(A) Feste
(B) Sir Toby
(C) Maria
(D) Viola

15. What does the forged letter make Malvolio believe?

(A) That Maria is in love with him
(B) That he is going to inherit a fortune
(C) That Viola is in love with him
(D) That Olivia is in love with him

16. Who takes care of Sebastian after he is shipwrecked?

(A) Viola
(B) Feste
(C) Malvolio
(D) Antonio

17. Who challenges Cesario to a duel?

(A) Orsino
(B) Sir Andrew
(C) Malvolio
(D) Antonio

18. What does Malvolio wear in the hope of pleasing Olivia?

(A) Green leggings
(B) Women’s clothing
(C) Yellow stockings and crossed garters
(D) A red wig and silver pantaloons

19. Why does Antonio travel to Illyria?

(A) To be close to Sebastian
(B) To get revenge on Orsino
(C) To woo Olivia
(D) He does not travel

20. Why does Sir Andrew try to fight with Sebastian?

(A) He thinks that Sebastian has killed Orsino
(B) He thinks that Sebastian wants to kill Sir Toby
(C) He thinks that Sebastian is in love with Maria
(D) He thinks that Sebastian is Cesario

21. What do Sir Toby and the others do to Malvolio?

(A) They kill him
(B) They lock him in a dark room and tell him he is mad
(C) They tar and feather him
(D) They get him drunk and convince him to sing with them

22. What disguise does Feste wear when he speaks with Malvolio?

(A) Cesario
(B) Olivia
(C) Sir Topas, the curate
(D) An angel

23. Who does Olivia marry?

(A) Sebastian
(B) Antonio
(C) Orsino
(D) Malvolio

24. When he realizes that Cesario is a woman, what does Orsino do?

(A) He orders her executed
(B) He banishes her
(C) He betroths her to Antonio
(D) He decides to marry her

25. Which character does not get married (or plan to) at the end of the play?

(A) Orsino
(B) Sir Toby
(C) Sebastian
(D) Malvolio

Note: Much ado about nothing has its own post.



We have already explained about copulative connectors 1 and Disyuntive connectors 2 ; this time we'll deal with Conditional Connector , (Conectores de condición).

Conditional connectors are those linking words which show a condition in order to carry out an action. (Son aquellos que indican condición para la realización de algo.)
Some of them are: (Algunos de ellos son:)

if, whether, unless, provided, as long as, in case, in case of.

Meaning / significado :

if - si
whether - si
unless - a menos que
provided / providing - siempre que, mientras
as long as - siempre que, mientras
in case - en caso de que .


if - si

If I see him, I'll give him the message.
Si lo veo, le daré el mensaje.

What shall we do, if they don't accept the offer?
¿Qué haremos si ellos no aceptan la oferta?

whether - si

I don't know whether they will agree on that subject.
No sé si ellos estarán de acuerdo en ese tema.

I wonder whether she really wants to do that.
Me pregunto si ella realmente quiere hacer eso.

unless - a menos que

You won't pass the exam unless you study harder.
No pasarás el exámen a menos que estudies más duro.

Don't go there unless they call you.
No vayas allá a menos que ellos te llamen.

provided / providing - siempre que, mientras

We'll go fishing this afternoon, provided it doesn't rain.
Iremos a pescar esta tarde, siempre que no llueva.

You can borrow my car providing you return it today.
Puedes tomar prestado mi coche siempre que lo regreses hoy.

as long as - siempre que, mientras

You can stay here as long as you work hard.
Te puedes quedar aquí mientras trabajes duro.

Nobody will know this secret as long as you keep mum.
Nadie sabrá este secreto siempre que mantengas la boca cerrada.

in case - en caso de que

Call this phone number in case you get lost.
Llama a este número de teléfono en caso de que te pierdas.

We will take our umbrellas in case it rains.
Llevaremos nuestros paraguas en caso de que llueva.



Some years ago, I listened this song and I realised that it was full of Perfect modals, so I started to use it with my advanced level students; and believe it was great!!
(Esta canción de ABBA es perfecta para los alumnos de nivel avanzado, verán claramente la estructura de estos vervos ya que la canción repite esta construcción, constantemente.)

ABBA's song "The Day Before You Came"

Must have left my house at eight, because I always do
My train, I'm certain, left the station just when it was due
I must have read the morning paper going into town
And having gotten through the editorial, no doubt I must have frowned
I must have made
my desk around a quarter after nine
With letters to be read, and heaps of papers waiting to be signed
I must have gone to lunch at half past twelve or so
The usual place, the usual bunch
And still on top of this I'm pretty sure it must have rained
The day before you came

I must have lit my seventh cigarette at half past two
And at the time I never even noticed I was blue
I must have kept on dragging through the business of the day
Without really knowing anything, I hid a part of me away
At five I must have left, there's no exception to the rule
A matter of routine, I've done it ever since I finished school
The train back home again
Undoubtedly I must have read the evening paper then
Oh yes, I'm sure my life was well within it's usual frame
The day before you came

Must have opened my front door at eight o'clock or so
And stopped along the way to buy some Chinese food to go
I'm sure I had my dinner watching something on TV
There's not, I think, a single episode of Dallas that I didn't see
I must have gone to bed around a quarter after ten
I need a lot of sleep, and so I like to be in bed by then
I must have read a while
The latest one by Marilyn French or something in that style
It's funny, but I had no sense of living without aim
The day before you came

And turning out the light
I must have yawned and cuddled up for yet another night
And rattling on the roof I must have heard the sound of rain
The day before you came





Reported Speech Practice


1. I explained him that I hadn't come to the lesson because I had felt sick.

2. My mother reminded me not to forget to pack my passport.

3. She denied she hadn't killed my precious little fluffy kitten.

4. He reommended I really had /ought to visit the Nritish Museum.

5. He promised me he'd marry me before the following spring .

6. He doubted if I thought he was having an affair (although he knew it sounded far-fetched)

7. I complained Mr. Bloggs his waiters were very rude.

8. She warned me not to swim (because) those were shark infested waters.

9. He ordered me to go to bed then.

10. He accused me I had stolen his jacket.

11. He enquired If there were any vacancies.

12. He pointed out that my flies were undone.

13. She mentioned that he was having a party the following weekend.

14. He forbade me not to (ever) smoke in his study.

15. He threatened taht he'd kick me so hard ... taht I'd spend ... of my life... if I didn't shut up.

16. She asked if she could kiss me.

17. She begged (for) a kiss / she begged if she could kiss me.

18. He agreed that he'd do the...

19. He permitted me to borrow his bike but just that once.

20. He admitted it was he who had shown my pictures with that girl to my girlfriend.


New Song: Rihanna , Only girl (in the world)

Who dares to translate it into Spanish?


Charlie bit my finger, a piece of fun!


Here you're the magnificents notes you should have written down in our English class, anyway I know you were paying attention ; so, it's time to study now!
For the rest of you , I think they're really useful and I tried to explain the Indirect speech as clear and easy as possible.

Reported Speech